average Incubation period is 8 to 10 days, but it can
vary between 2 and 21 days.
Acute infections will be confirmed using a real-time RT-PCR
Serologic testing (IgM and IgG antibodies) are required to monitor
the immune response in confirmed EVD patients
The medical history, especially travel and work history along with
exposure to wildlife are important to suspect the
diagnosis of EVD.
Leukopenia with lymphopenia followed later by elevated neutrophils
and a left shift.
Platelet counts are often decreased in the 50,000 to 100,000 range.
Amylase, Hepatic transaminases, fibrin degradation products,
Prothrombin (PT) and partial thromboplastin times
(PTT) may be elevated
Proteinuria may be present.
Initially exclude common ailments like malaria, typhoid fever,
shigellosis, cholera, leptospirosis, plague,
rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, meningitis, hepatitis
and other viral hemorrhagic fevers.
Sample Collection and Transportation in
Exercising standard precautions, samples must be
transported to NIH; duly labeled / packed in triple
packaging to the Department of Virology, Public Health
Laboratories Division, National Institute of Health,
Islamabad along with detailed clinical information and
travel / contact history on standard Lab request form
General principles of care are as follows:
Supportive therapy with attention to intravascular
volume, electrolytes, nutrition, and comfort care is
of benefit to the patient
Such therapy must be administered with strict
attention to barrier isolation; all body fluids
contain infectious virions and should be handled with
No specific therapy is available that has demonstrated
efficacy in the treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever
There are no commercially available Ebola vaccines.
In those patients who do recover, recovery often
requires months, and delays may be expected before
full resumption of normal activities. Weight gain and
return of strength are slow. Ebola virus continues to
be present for many weeks after resolution of the
Early recognition is critical for infection control. Any patient
with suspected Ebola needs to be isolated until
diagnosis is confirmed or Ebola is ruled out.
Healthcare providers should consider travel history, symptoms and
risks of exposure before recommending Ebola diagnosis.
Patients should be placed in a single room, containing a bathroom
with the door closed.
Facilities should maintain a log of all persons entering the
All persons entering the patient room should wear at least: fluid
resistant or impermeable gloves, gown, eye protection
(goggles or face shield), and a facemask.
Additional Personal protective equipment might be required in
certain situations e.g., copious amounts of blood,
other body fluids, vomit or feces present in the
Meticulous environmental cleaning and disinfection and
safe handling of potentially contaminated materials is
vital as blood, sweat, emesis, feces and other body
secretions represent potentially infectious materials.
The duration of precautions should be determined on a
case-by-case basis, in conjunction with local, state
and federal health authorities.
you travel to any of the four affected countries, make
sure to do the following:
Practice careful hygiene.
Avoid contact with blood and body fluids.
Do not handle items that may have come in contact with an infected
person’s blood or body fluids.
Avoid funeral or burial rituals that require handling the body of
someone who has died from Ebola.
Avoid contact with animals or raw meat.
Avoid hospitals where Ebola patients are being treated.
Seek medical care immediately if you develop fever, headache,
bodyaches, sore throat, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach
pain, rash, or red eyes.
Pay attention to your health after you return.
Monitor your health for 21 days if you were in an area with an
Ebola outbreak, especially if you were in contact with
blood or body fluids, items that have come in contact
with blood or body fluids, animals or raw meat, or
hospitals where Ebola patients are being treated.
Seek medical care immediately if you develop fever,
headache, achiness, sore throat, diarrhea, vomiting,
stomach pain, rash, or red eyes.